How Do I Litter Train a Rabbit?
Most rabbits want to deposit their litter in one spot, that's a plus on your side!
Purchase some pine shavings or flakes, under $6 for a huge bat of it at Tractor Supply or Southern States, or some compressed sawdust pellets which are cheap and highly absorbent.
Choose a box to use, something with a higher side and large enough to contain the litter and keep it from going everywhere. You don't want the litter being deposited over the side with the rabbit standing inside the box, so make it big enough.
Keep your rabbit in it's cage. Find out where the litter is being deposited and put the box there... that is working with your rabbit and remember, it's tough to go against Mother Nature, so work with your bunny to make it easy on both of you! Make sure it's easy for the bunny to get in and out of the box.
Once your bunny gets the idea, you can open up the cage and allow some more room for him/her to roam, but keep contained on an easily cleanable surface in case of accidents.
Remember, rewarding good behavior works well with rabbits as well as children and dogs. If there is an error, try to catch it while happening if possible and get your bunny to the litter box. Don't punish the bunny for errors to make it a negative event. Never hit a bunny. Remember to reinforce with positive actions like treats or bunny safe toys. Reduce the area if he/she is having problems finding the box.
It may take a bit to train, but bunnies love your attention and positive reinforcement with treats or play. Eventually you will be able to give as much room as you want to let your new pet enjoy additional space.
Words of Advice
Keep the litter box cleaned out. Wet litter has acid from the urine that can damage the pads on your rabbit's feet. Clean out the box daily if possible.
I recommend to my new owners to buy Bragg's Apple Cider Vinegar, it's the cloudy one with the 'Mother' in it. Put a 2 to 3 spritzes from a spray bottle filled with the vinegar into the drinking water that your rabbit uses. Slowly work your way up so the bunny does not turn off to the water. The bottle costs about $8-$10 and will probably last you a year. It's a great product for us to ingest ourselves, but it also reduces the odor of the rabbit urine. Remember, rabbit poo does not smell, but rabbit urine does.
Also the more expensive feed that contains Yucca Plant extract also helps in keeping the smell of urine at bay, as well as extra things like Probiotics to keep the bunny belly healthy with the addition of good germs.
Make sure you keep your bunnies so they can easily find the litter box. Stay that way until they are using it before expanding space. One new 'Mom' told me they had theirs in the living room before it was fully trained, and now bunny is perfect with his box throughout the home, but also thinks the couch is an OK place which it obviously is not, so bunny is banished from that room. Just FYI she mentioned to pass along.
Now you have product from the litter box to use on your garden to grow food for your rabbit and you... great way to go green and recycle!